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JSON Web Tokens (JWT)

JSON Web Token(JWT) is an open standard (RFC 7519) for securely transmitting information between parties in the form of a JSON object.


JSON Web Tokens (JWT) can be accessed as part of OpenID Connect (OIDC), available only in the business edition for self-hosted instances.

How to use JSON web tokens in Appsmith

Suppose you have integrated your Single Sign On(SSO) provider with Appsmith using OpenID Connect, and you are using Appsmith to log in and your SSO provider to authenticate the request.

Refer to the image below to see how this interaction takes place.

Interaction between Appsmith and SSO Provider

In the above image, you can see that:

  • A user requests to log in using Appsmith.
  • Behind the scenes, Appsmith is integrated with the SSO provider.
  • SSO Provider authorizes the request.
  • The SSO provider generates a token for authenticated users and shares them with Appsmith.
  • Appsmith has the token accessible on the platform. You can pass it on in your APIs to provide access to the resources or perform desired operations.

Types of tokens

Appsmith provides two types of JSON Web Tokens that your application can integrate with ID Token and Access Token.

ID token

An ID token is a signed assurance of a user’s identity and contains basic information like the name, picture, email address, etc. When a user logs in successfully, an ID token is shared as per the Open ID Connect (OIDC) specification.

How to read ID tokens on Appsmith?

Once the SSO provider successfully authenticates a user, the ID token is available on the Appsmith platform.


Appsmith exposes the idToken parameter on the client side. It thus can be embedded in any operation that you would like to perform in JavaScript functions, APIs, or queries.

You can read the value of an id token in your APIs/Queries by using the mustache syntax {{}}.


Access token

An access token is an object that stores information about an entity in the form of claims. An access token comes in handy when you want to use token-based authentication. Access tokens are self-contained. You don’t have to call a server to validate a token.

How to read access tokens on Appsmith?

After successful user authentication through an SSO Provider, you can use the access tokens on Appsmith. The access token is available as an environment variable.


The environment variable isn't accessible on the client side as per security norms.

The environment variable APPSMITH_USER_OAUTH2_ACCESS_TOKEN stores the access token. You can read the value of the access token by using it between the angular braces<<>>.


With the JSON Web Tokens available on Appsmith, you can securely exchange data or information between Appsmith and your apps or APIs.

When to use JSON web tokens?

Following are some common scenarios where JSON Web Tokens are used:


For an authenticated user, whenever a user requests to access resources, services, or routes, the application passes the information as an access token that follows a JWT format. Single Sign-On (SSO) commonly uses JWTs to communicate with different systems residing on similar or other domains.

Information exchange

JSON Web Tokens are a secure way of transmitting information between different applications. JWTs can also be signed. Tokens can have a timestamp associated with them, and once the timestamp is expired, you can block the information exchange for the expired token. You can also verify that the content of the token has not been tampered with. For example, use public/private key pairs, you can ensure that the sender is authorized. This provides an additional layer of security for data or information exchange.

How does JSON web token work?

For instance, you are authenticating a user. Your SSO Provider shares a JSON Web Token(JWT) on the successful authentication.


As a best practice, you should only store the token for the time it is needed.

Whenever a user requests access to a resource, the user agent should send the JWT, usually in the Authorization header using Bearer.

Authorization: Bearer <followed by the token value>

The server’s validation mechanism verifies the token in the Authorization header and grant access to the resources or allows the user to perform an action.


Sending a token as a part of the Authorization header eliminates the Cross-Origin Resource Sharing(CORS) usually faced while sharing through cookies.

JSON web token structure

A JSON Web Token has three main parts separated with a dot(.) - Header, Payload, and Signature.

For example, your header is HEADER1, Payload is PAYLOAD1, and Signature is SIGNATURE1, then the JWT structure is as follows:


A JWT header stores information about the type of token that is JWT and the algorithm used for signing, like SHA256 or RSA, etc.

So, the header is represented as:





Here alg stands for the algorithm used for signing, and typ stands for the token type. The JSON is then encoded as a Base64Url to form the first part of the JSON Web Token, the header.


The second part of the token, a payload, comprises claims. Claims are information about the entity usually associated with the user and the metadata. There are three types of claims - public, private, and reserved.


If you create public claims, you must define them in IANA JSON Web Token Registry or define them as a URI with a collision-resistant namespace.


The public claims should be validated and agreed upon by Issuer and Consumer.


The parties communicating with each other might want to have some custom claims identified. You can define these custom claims under private claims. These claims are neither registered nor public.


The public/private claims should not have similar names as reserved claims as it breaks the interoperability between the systems exchanging information.


A set of pre-defined claims that are not mandatory but are deemed recommended are defined as registered claims. Such claims provide useful information like expiration time, issuer details, the intended audience, etc.


The claim names are only three characters long to ensure compact JWT.

A sample payload could be:


“sub”: “SSOProvider”,

“email_verified”: true,

“updated_at”: 1646310160264


The payload is then encoded to form a Base64Url and forms the second part of the token.


To create a signature, you have to encode the header, payload, a secret, use the algorithm defined in the header and sign it.

For example, you are using HMAC SHA-256(HS256) algorithm. Then the generated signature is as follows:


base64UrlEncode(header) + "." +



You can use the signature to validate the sender's authenticity, check if the message is tampered with, and sign with a private key.

The signature is encoded as Base64Url and appended to form a complete JSON Web Token.

For example, an encoded JWT with header, payload, and signature could be as follows:


You can see that the three parts of the JWT are separated by a dot(.).


You can use the JWT Debugger to encode, decode, or verify the generated JWTs.

Why use JSON web tokens?

The key benefits of using a JWT are that it is more compact. It is secured and can use a shared secret between an issuer and a consumer. It uses JSON format; almost every programming language has a JSON parser, so you don’t have to reinvent the wheel.